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Recent Publications of Rutgers University CounterACT Research Center of Excellence Members

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=Laskin JD OR Laskin DL OR Marion MK OR Gerecke DR OR Heindel ND OR Heck DE OR Sinko PJ
Updated: 16 min 58 sec ago

A Novel Bivalent Mannosylated Targeting Ligand Displayed on Nanoparticles Selectively Targets Anti-Inflammatory M2 Macrophages.

Thu, 03/19/2020 - 10:02
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A Novel Bivalent Mannosylated Targeting Ligand Displayed on Nanoparticles Selectively Targets Anti-Inflammatory M2 Macrophages.

Pharmaceutics. 2020 Mar 08;12(3):

Authors: Chen P, Zhang X, Venosa A, Lee IH, Myers D, Holloway JA, Prud'homme RK, Gao D, Szekely Z, Laskin JD, Laskin DL, Sinko PJ

Abstract
Persistent activation of macrophages (MP)s into a proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype plays a role in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, infections, atherosclerosis and tumor development. The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed at low levels on resting MPs and absent on M1 MPs, is highly expressed on M2 MPs, making it a potential target and drug delivery portal. Recently, we developed a novel, highly selective MR targeting ligand (MRTL), consisting of two mannose molecules separated by a monodisperse 12 unit poly(ethylene glycol) linker, to enhance the cellular uptake of polymeric nanocarriers. The feasibility of using the MRTL ligand for selectively targeting M2 MPs for intracellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. Rat peritoneal MPs were differentiated into an M1 or M2 phenotype using IFN-γ and IL-4/IL-13, respectively. Expression of the M1 marker, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the M2 markers arginase (Arg)-1 and MR (at both the mRNA and protein levels) confirmed MP phenotypic activation. Resting, M1 and M2 MPs were treated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled MRTL or NPs displaying FITC-labeled MRTL at two surface densities (1 and 10%) and examined by confocal microscopy. Intracellular fluorescence was also quantified. Uptake of the MRTL was 2.4- and 11.8-fold higher in M2 MPs when compared to resting or M1 MPs, respectively, consistent with marker expression levels. Mannan, a competitive inhibitor of the MR, abrogated MRTL uptake. MRTL also co-localized with a fluid-phase endocytosis marker, further suggesting that uptake was mediated by MR-mediated endocytosis. Intracellular NP fluorescence was confirmed by flow cytometry and by confocal microscopy. MRTL-NPs accumulated intracellularly with no significant cell surface binding, suggesting efficient translocation. NPs displaying a low surface density (1%) of the MRTL exhibited significantly higher (2.3-fold) uptake into M2 MPs, relative to resting and M1 MPs. The 10% MRTL-NPs displayed greater uptake by M2 MPs when compared to resting and M1 MPs, but less uptake than 1% MRTL-NPs into M2 MPs. Control FITC-labeled plain NPs did not exhibit selective MP uptake. These studies demonstrate that M2 MPs are selectively targeted by NPs displaying a novel bivalent ligand that utilizes the MR as a target/portal for cell entry. This study also establishes the feasibility of the approach allowing for further investigation in vivo.

PMID: 32182675 [PubMed]

DNA damage signaling in the cellular responses to mustard vesicants.

Tue, 03/17/2020 - 10:55
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DNA damage signaling in the cellular responses to mustard vesicants.

Toxicol Lett. 2020 Mar 12;:

Authors: Jan YH, Heck DE, Laskin DL, Laskin JD

Abstract
Mustard vesicants, including sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) and nitrogen mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine, HN2) are cytotoxic blistering agents synthesized for chemical warfare. Because they contain highly reactive electrophilic chloroethyl side chains, they readily react with cellular macromolecules like DNA forming monofunctional and bifunctional adducts. By targeting DNA, mustards can compromise genomic integrity, disrupt the cell cycle, and cause mutations and cytotoxicity. To protect against genotoxicity following exposure to mustards, cells initiate a DNA damage response (DDR). This involves activation of signaling cascades including ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related) and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic unit). Signaling induced by the DDR leads to the recruitment and activation of repair related proteins such as H2AX and p53 to sites of DNA lesions. Excessive DNA modifications by mustards can overwhelm DNA repair leading to single and double strand DNA breaks, cytotoxicity and tissue damage, sometimes leading to cancer. Herein we summarize DDR signaling pathways induced by SM, HN2 and the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). At the present time, little is known about how mustard-induced DNA damage leads to the activation of DDR signaling. A better understanding of mechanisms by which mustard vesicants induce the DDR may lead to the development of countermeasures effective in mitigating tissue injury.

PMID: 32173488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of Macrophages in Acute Lung Injury and Chronic Fibrosis Induced by Pulmonary Toxicants.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 10:38
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Role of Macrophages in Acute Lung Injury and Chronic Fibrosis Induced by Pulmonary Toxicants.

Toxicol Sci. 2019 04 01;168(2):287-301

Authors: Laskin DL, Malaviya R, Laskin JD

Abstract
A diverse group of toxicants has been identified that cause injury to the lung including gases (eg, ozone, chlorine), particulates/aerosols (eg, diesel exhaust, fly ash, other combustion products, mustards, nanomaterials, silica, asbestos), chemotherapeutics (eg, bleomycin), and radiation. The pathologic response to these toxicants depends on the dose and duration of exposure and their physical/chemical properties. A common response to pulmonary toxicant exposure is an accumulation of proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages at sites of tissue injury, followed by the appearance of anti-inflammatory/wound repair M2 macrophages. It is thought that the outcome of the pathogenic responses to toxicants depends on the balance in the activity of these macrophage subpopulations. Overactivation of either M1 or M2 macrophages leads to injury and disease pathogenesis. Thus, the very same macrophage-derived mediators, released in controlled amounts to destroy injurious materials and pathogens (eg, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, proteases, tumor necrosis factor α) and initiate wound repair (eg, transforming growth factor β, connective tissue growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor), can exacerbate acute lung injury and/or induce chronic disease such as fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, when released in excess. This review focuses on the role of macrophage subsets in acute lung injury and chronic fibrosis. Understanding how these pathologies develop following exposure to toxicants, and the contribution of resident and inflammatory macrophages to disease pathogenesis may lead to the development of novel approaches for treating lung diseases.

PMID: 30590802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Placental BCRP/ABCG2 Transporter Prevents Fetal Exposure to the Estrogenic Mycotoxin Zearalenone.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 10:38
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Placental BCRP/ABCG2 Transporter Prevents Fetal Exposure to the Estrogenic Mycotoxin Zearalenone.

Toxicol Sci. 2019 04 01;168(2):394-404

Authors: Szilagyi JT, Gorczyca L, Brinker A, Buckley B, Laskin JD, Aleksunes LM

Abstract
In the placenta, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 efflux transporter limits the maternal-to-fetal transfer of drugs and chemicals. Previous research has pointed to the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone as a potential substrate for BCRP. Here, we sought to assess the role of the BCRP transporter in the transplacental disposition of zearalenone during pregnancy. In vitro transwell transport assays employing BCRP/Bcrp-transfected Madine-Darby canine kidney cells and BeWo trophoblasts with reduced BCRP expression were used to characterize the impact of BCRP on the bidirectional transport of zearalenone. In both models, the presence of BCRP protein increased the basolateral-to-apical transport and reduced the apical-to-basolateral transport of zearalenone over a 2-h period. In vivo pharmacokinetic analyses were then performed using pregnant wild-type and Bcrp-/- mice after a single tail vein injection of zearalenone. Zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol were detectable in serum, placentas, and fetuses from all animals, and β-zearalenol was detected in serum and fetuses, but not placentas. There were no significant differences in the maternal serum concentrations of any analytes between the two genotypes. In Bcrp-/- mice, the free fetal concentrations of zearalenone, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol were increased by 115%, 84%, and 150%, respectively, when compared with wild-type mice. Concentrations of free zearalenone and α-zearalenol were elevated 145% and 78% in Bcrp-/- placentas, respectively, when compared with wild-type placentas. Taken together, these data indicate that the placental BCRP transporter functions to reduce the fetal accumulation of zearalenone, which may impact susceptibility to developmental toxicities associated with in utero zearalenone exposure.

PMID: 30576553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Synthetically modified methoxsalen for enhanced cytotoxicity in light and dark reactions.

Fri, 03/06/2020 - 19:45
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Synthetically modified methoxsalen for enhanced cytotoxicity in light and dark reactions.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019 02 15;29(4):619-622

Authors: Guillon CD, Jan YH, Foster N, Ressner J, Heck DE, Laskin JD, Heindel ND

Abstract
Linear furocoumarins, also known as psoralens, are clinically useful photo-activated pharmaceuticals employed to address hyperproliferative skin diseases. Seven diverse cytotoxic pharmacophores have been synthetically attached to 8-methoxypsoralen via a 5-amino functionality. The resulting unique set of compounds was evaluated for dark and light toxicity against PAM212 keratinocytes in culture.

PMID: 30638875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant/stress response in mouse epidermis following exposure to nitrogen mustard.

Tue, 03/03/2020 - 11:15
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Antioxidant/stress response in mouse epidermis following exposure to nitrogen mustard.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2020 Feb 27;:104410

Authors: Wahler G, Heck DE, Heindel ND, Laskin DL, Laskin JD, Joseph LB

Abstract
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent that induces inflammation, edema and blistering in skin. An important mechanism mediating the action of NM and related mustards is oxidative stress. In these studies a modified murine patch-test model was used to analyze DNA damage and the antioxidant/stress response following NM exposure in isolated epidermis. NM (20 μmol) was applied to glass microfiber filters affixed to a shaved dorsal region of skin of CD-1 mice. NM caused structural damage to the stratum corneum as reflected by increases in transepidermal water loss and skin hydration. This was coordinate with edema, mast cell degranulation and epidermal hyperplasia. Within 3 h of NM exposure, a 4-fold increase in phosphorylated histone H2AX, a marker of DNA double-stranded breaks, and a 25-fold increase in phosphorylated p53, a DNA damage marker, were observed in the epidermis. This was associated with a 40% increase in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine modified DNA in the epidermis and a 4-fold increase in 4-hydroxynonenal modified epidermal proteins. At 12 h post NM, there was a 3-75 fold increase in epidermal expression of antioxidant/stress proteins including heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, heat shock protein 27 and cyclooxygenase 2. These data indicate that NM induces early oxidative epidermal injury in mouse skin leading to an antioxidant/stress response. Agents that enhance this response may be useful in mitigating mustard-induced skin injury.

PMID: 32113906 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of extracellular vesicles in cell-cell communication and inflammation following exposure to pulmonary toxicants.

Tue, 01/07/2020 - 11:44

Role of extracellular vesicles in cell-cell communication and inflammation following exposure to pulmonary toxicants.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2019 Dec 16;:

Authors: Andres J, Smith LC, Murray A, Jin Y, Businaro R, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key regulators of cell-cell communication during inflammatory responses to lung injury induced by diverse pulmonary toxicants including cigarette smoke, air pollutants, hyperoxia, acids, and endotoxin. Many lung cell types, including epithelial cells and endothelial cells, as well as infiltrating macrophages generate EVs. EVs appear to function by transporting cargo to recipient cells that, in most instances, promote their inflammatory activity. Biologically active cargo transported by EVs include miRNAs, cytokines/chemokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), tissue factor (TF)s, and caspases. Findings that EVs are taken up by target cells such as macrophages, and that this leads to increased proinflammatory functioning provide support for their role in the development of pathologies associated with toxicant exposure. Understanding the nature of EVs responding to toxic exposures and their cargo may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to mitigating lung injury.

PMID: 31901309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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